There’s a reason many men feel insecure as they begin to bald. Hair is a powerful symbol that can reflect your overall state of health.
Male pattern hair loss and male balding describe the medical condition called androgenic alopecia. Although typically occurring in men, it can also occur in women (sometimes called “female pattern” hair loss). But since it is Father’s Day, I’ll specifically be addressing the treatment options for men. As pharmacists, we’re most comfortable discussing the medications used for androgenic alopecia, but we’ll also address several non-drug choices, including hair transplant and cosmetic aids.
How common is male pattern hair loss?
The prevalence of androgenic alopecia increases with age and it is estimated that in Caucasians, about 50% of men will experience male pattern hair loss by the age of 50. While in Asians, the prevalence is lower. A recent study in six cities in China found that about 30% of men aged 50-59 years old had male balding. Of the men included in this study, 30% had a positive family history of male pattern baldness.
What is the role of androgens?
Genetics does seem to play a role in the risk of male pattern hair loss. In addition to genetics, it is thought that hormones also play a role in causing hair loss. One such hormone is called dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is a metabolite of testosterone. Both of these substances are androgens, the hormones that give men their manly characteristics, such as facial and armpit hair growth, deeper voices, and increased muscle mass.
Interestingly, excessive androgens can also cause hair loss in specific areas of the head that are sensitive to to the hormones. These hair follicles are stimulated by DHT, and begin to shrink, or miniaturize over time. Although the conventional thinking implicates DHT as the main culprit in male hair loss, others have argued that male pattern hair loss is primarily due to a hardening of tissue of the scalp leading to inflammation and decreased blood flow. This reduced flow of blood cutes of the supply of nutrients which contributes to the shortening and thinning of hair.
You probably know someone with the typical pattern of hair loss: first it begins near the temples, and then gradually moves to the top (vertex) of the head. This gives the hair an “M” shape pattern and spares the hair along the side of the head. Looks almost like a half circular donut!
What are the causes of male pattern hair loss?
Potential risk factors that are linked to male hair loss include cardiovascular disease, prostate cancer, and decreased insulin sensitivity. A person who is obese, has type 2 diabetes mellitus, or has high blood pressure may have reduced sensitivity to insulin and trouble breaking down sugars. If you haven’t been to the doctor recently, then it would be a good idea to measure you weight, blood pressure, blood sugar and screen for prostate cancer (if appropriate). That way you can address any risk factors that may contribute to your baldness.
Generally no blood tests are needed to diagnose male pattern hair loss. However, it is worthwhile to see a doctor so that they can order some basic lab tests to rule out other causes of hair loss. For example, iron deficiency and low thyroid hormone can cause hair loss.
What drugs can cause hair loss?
Sometimes medications cause hair loss. If you regularly take medicines, check with your pharmacist or doctor to see if a drug could be causing your hair loss.The most common drugs that may cause hair loss include blood thinners (anticoagulants), hormone therapy (thyroid drugs, androgens), psychotropic drugs (antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium), and cancer chemotherapy. Depending on your circumstances it may be possible to adjust your medications to solve your hair loss problem.
Male pattern hair loss treatments
Several treatment options are available. Many men begin with conventional drug treatments.
Minoxidil is an old drug that was originally studied to treat high blood pressure. Patients began to notice the surprising side effect of hair growth so now it is mostly used on the scalp to manage hair loss.
In Hong Kong, there are about two dozen products containing minoxidil. The most common brand name is Regaine 倍健. Minoxidil comes as either a liquid or foam and it can be easily purchased from a pharmacy without a prescription.
Use it twice a day on the area of hair loss. Make sure the the skin is dry and not irritated. You’ll want to avoid swimming or showering for at least 30 mins after applying the medicine in order to allow it to be absorbed into your skin. Generally you need to continue using it for at least a year to make a meaningful decision about the drug’s effectiveness. It is available in concentrations of 2-5%. The extra strength (5% concentration) may be more effective and cause hair to regrow sooner.
You’ll want to monitor for any itchiness, skin irritation (allergy), flushing, and excessive hair growth (hypertrichosis). Follow the product directions for full details on how to apply the medicine.
Finasteride is strong blocker of an enzyme called 5-alpha-reductase. Pharmacologically it causes a dramatic drop in the levels of DHT in your blood. However, similar to minoxidil, it doesn’t work very quickly and needs to be taken on a daily basis for usually at least a year to see an effect.
The typical starting dose of finasteride is 1 mg per day. It is a prescription drug. The 1 mg strength product is called Propecia 保康絲, while the 5 mg product strength (used to treat enlarged prostate) is called Proscar 保列治. To save on medication cost, it is perfectly reasonable to use a tablet cutter and split a 5 mg tablet. Take one quarter of the 5 mg tablet on a daily basis. Because finasteride drastically reduces androgen levels, split or crush tablets should not be handled by pregnant women.
Recently there has been greater concern about the risk of severe side effects with finasteride. Although they don’t appear to be common, some men experience depression, suicidal thoughts, breast enlargement, decrease libido, erectile dysfunction. and sexual dysfunction. There is also greater awareness of the “post-finasteride syndrome”, with some disabling side effects continuing long after stopping the medicine. Young men should discuss the risks and benefits with their doctor before starting treatment.
Non-drug treatment options
General non-drug treatments include eating a nutritionally balanced diet, avoiding tight hairstyles, such as braids, buns or ponytails, avoiding compulsively twisting, rubbing or pulling your hair and treating your hair gently when washing and brushing.
If you prefer not taking medicines, cosmetic aids such as creative hair styling, hairpieces and hair lightening can help improve hair appearance. Furthermore, you can explore hair transplant and low-level laser treatment with a dermatologist or plastic surgeon.
Many men will choose to do nothing about their hair loss. For those who are concerned about male pattern hair loss, it is important to address risk factors and make sure another medical condition or drug is not causing the hair loss. There are two conventional drug treatments for androgenic alopecia: minoxidil is a non-prescription drug that is applied directly to the skin whereas finasteride is a prescription drug taken by mouth on a daily basis. Men should discuss the drug treatment options with their pharmacist and doctor. They will help you use the product correctly and can help you monitor for potential side effects.
Contributors: Jason Tong and Cheng Wai Chung.
A Chinese version of this post appeared here.
In October 2016 I quit my full-time job as a hospital pharmacist and began preparing to write the Pharmacy and Poisons Board of Hong Kong pharmacy registration exam. Pharmacists who’ve passed these exams will tell you the best prep is to work through past papers.
That’s why I spent the next two months dissecting and reviewing all the topics covered in recent past exam questions. As a guide to help those who are thinking about taking the registration exams, I want to walk you through my prep timeline so that you know what to expect.
Gather Necessary Documents
Just to be able to register and sit the exam, I had to complete the application form and get numerous documents certified by a notary public. You are also required to get a reference letter and a letter of good standing from your local pharmacy regulatory authority (board/council/college).
My suggestion is to begin this process six months prior to your target exam date. This will ensure your document requests can be processed well before the application deadline.
Triple Check Your Application
Carefully review all parts of your application using the checklist provided by the Pharmacy and Poisons Board of Hong Kong. Pay special attention to your name. Even though I don’t have a legal Chinese name, some of my documents include my middle name or my middle initial.
If your name has ANY differences amongst the submitted documents, make sure you submit a declaration attesting that all the names are one and the same. I discovered this problem after submitting my initial application and had to make a second trip, and payment, to a notary public. If you are residing in Hong Kong, check with the Pharmacy and Poisons Board about making the declaration at their office in Wanchai. It may be easier, and cheaper, to go submit your documents and make the declaration in person, so that the staff can verbally confirm that no further documentation is required.
Submit Your Application
After mailing all my required documents to Hong Kong prior to the August 31, 2016 deadline, I finally heard on October 7, 2016 that I was approved to sit the December exams. I choose to sit all three exams at the same time This now left me only two months to obtain, and study from, the exam past papers.
Get Registration Exam Past Papers
Not only do you have limited time to get the registration exam past papers, but you (or your representative) also have to physically purchase copies of the past examination papers from the Pharmacy and Poisons Board of Hong Kong. The Board charges a photocopying fee of about 2 HKD per page. This process can be quite cumbersome especially if you are not in Hong Kong.
Save Valuable Prep Time
If you want to maximize the time available to review past exam papers, there is now a better solution. You get exclusive early access to the past exam papers and expert peer reviewed model answers. The detailed answers, with references, will accelerate your exam preparation and help you identify gaps in your knowledge.
The Hong Kong pharmacy registration exam is the most difficult professional exam I have written. And I have written the national licensing exam in Canada and Board of Pharmacy Specialties Pharmacotherapy Specialist exam. Had this service been available, I would have taken full advantage since it would have saved me plenty of stress, time and money.
The two months of full-time intense focus paid-off since I passed all three pharmacy registration exams on the first try. Yet most people, will not have the luxury of such a long break from their work.
Helping You Succeed
Because of how challenging these exams are, I’ve partnered with Dr. Sharon Tang of Hong Kong Pharmacy Registration Exams Tutorials. The online tutorials clearly guide you through each exam question and include practical exam tips and information about drugs in Hong Kong.
Dr. Sharon Tang is a former community and hospital pharmacist. She is passionate about education and has taught nursing and pharmacy technician students in Hong Kong. Since 2010, she has been helping pharmacists pass the Hong Kong pharmacist registration exams by sharing strategies on her Facebook page. She is a registered pharmacist in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom.
I am a clinical pharmacist, who has worked in a large teaching hospital and community pharmacy. My experience includes being a mentor, teacher, and researcher, and I enjoy helping pharmacy students achieve their goals. Currently I am a registered pharmacist in Hong Kong and Alberta, Canada.
Sharon and I have created several exam prep courses for pharmacists writing the Hong Kong pharmacy registration exams. As a way to show you the benefits of these online courses, you can start with a free tutorial on searching for drug information in Hong Kong. As a bonus, we’ve also included free questions and answers from several past papers.
Pharmacists have told us that these tutorials are very helpful. Save your valuable prep time by starting with our registration exam tutorials today!